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玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍

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发表时间:2019-04-14 16:35

玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍

2016年,我几乎走遍了南美大陆,其中包括刚从长达50年内战阴霾中解放的哥伦比亚,但最终却因为签证问题止步于委内瑞拉(错失了最后一个我想看的天使瀑布)。至此,除了法属圭亚那、苏里南、圭亚那以外,南美大陆最精彩的部分我都已经领略,算是不完美的收官。

接下来的时间,我将会分几个攻略来给大家分别解密对于国人来讲这片地球上最神秘的大洲,旅行者的终极目的地,南美大陆的旅行攻略。

今天先来谈谈—天空之镜—玻利维亚。

划词

检测到:中文  »  英语

翻译 人工翻译

2016年,我几乎走遍了南美大陆,其中包括刚从长达50年内战阴霾中解放的哥伦比亚,但最终却因为签证问题止步于委内瑞拉(错失了最后一个我想看的天使瀑布)。至此,除了法属圭亚那、苏里南、圭亚那以外,南美大陆最精彩的部分我都已经领略,算是不完美的收官。 接下来的时间,我将会分几个攻略来给大家分别解密对于国人来讲这片地球上最神秘的大洲,旅行者的终极目的地,南美大陆的旅行攻略。 今天先来谈谈—天空之镜—玻利维亚。


In 2016, I nearly traveled all over South America, including Colombia, which had just been liberated from 50 years of civil war, but ended up in venezuela because of visa issues (missing the last angel falls I wanted to see). So far, apart from French Guiana, suriname and Guyana, I have seen the most wonderful parts of the South American continent, which is an imperfect ending.


In the next few minutes, I will share with you the most mysterious continent on earth, the ultimate destination of travelers, and the travel guide of South America.


Today we are going to talk about -- mirror of the sky -- Bolivia.


开篇

源于印加帝国的历史原因,玻利维亚始终与秘鲁紧密相连,这里是拉丁美洲独立革命的发源地,同时也是最后一个独立的国家,从玻利瓦尔到切格瓦拉,无数革命者在此抛头颅洒热血。从开采了三个世纪支撑西班牙整个大航海时期鼎盛帝国的波托西银矿,到如今美若仙境却坐拥巨量盐矿的乌尤尼。走过厚重而沉重的历史,他们已经从神秘中走出来。

“天空之镜”乌尤尼盐沼——世界最大盐层覆盖荒原,恍若天堂般纯洁

划词

检测到:中文  »  英语

翻译 人工翻译

源于印加帝国的历史原因,玻利维亚始终与秘鲁紧密相连,这里是拉丁美洲独立革命的发源地,同时也是最后一个独立的国家,从玻利瓦尔到切格瓦拉,无数革命者在此抛头颅洒热血。从开采了三个世纪支撑西班牙整个大航海时期鼎盛帝国的波托西银矿,到如今美若仙境却坐拥巨量盐矿的乌尤尼。走过厚重而沉重的历史,他们已经从神秘中走出来。 “天空之镜”乌尤尼盐沼——世界最大盐层覆盖荒原,恍若天堂般纯洁 “美洲之眼”的的喀喀湖——乌鲁人的故乡,探访浮岛的神秘世界“地狱之门”波托西银矿——地球上曾经最富裕的城市,800万印第安人葬身地下 “南美黄石” Eduardo Abaroa——南美的西藏,坐落在活火山上的国家公园


From the history of the Inca empire, Bolivia has always been closely linked with Peru. It is the birthplace of the independence revolution in Latin America and the last independent country. From bolivar to che guevara, countless revolutionaries shed their blood here. From the silver mines of potosi, which sustained the Spanish empire for three centuries at the height of the great voyages, to the vast salt deposits of uyuni in fairyland today. Through thick and heavy history, they have come out of the mystery.


"Sky mirror" salar DE uyuni, the world's largest salt flat covering the desert, is as pure as heaven



Lake titicaca in the eye of America, home of the urus, and the mysterious world of floating islands, "hell's gate" potosi silver mine, once the richest city on earth, buried 8 million indian


Eduardo Abaroa -- South America's Tibet, a national park located on an active volcano


“美洲之眼”的的喀喀湖——乌鲁人的故乡,探访浮岛的神秘世界 “地狱之门”波托西银矿——地球上曾经最富裕的城市,800万印第安人葬身地下

“南美黄石” Eduardo Abaroa——南美的西藏,坐落在活火山上的国家公园

玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍

实用攻略

签证

• 玻利维亚落地签

玻利维亚现已落实落地签证,另外不同的口岸要求的资料不同,建议提前准备好以下材料:

A. 签证申请表(陆路过境关口领取)

B. 护照首页复印件

C. 机票、酒店订单

D. 行程单

E. 黄热病疫苗证书

F. 资产证明(银行流水,不一定需要)

G. 100-110美元(网上有的说30刀不实)

• 国内申玻利维亚签证

国内目前仅支持北京办理玻利维亚签证,材料与落地签资料类似,10个工作日出签。


Tips:
另外前往南美一般是要转机美国,按照美国海关的要求,只要踏入美国领土,即使是转机,也需要持有美国签证,所以办理一张B1/B2美国十年签证就显得尤为重要


玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍

季节

大部分力旅行社会选择秘鲁和玻利维亚一起游览,但理论上玻利维亚和秘鲁不太适合一起走,综合来看一年中的1-2月是两国一起旅行的最佳时间。玻利维亚的天空之镜适合雨季旅行,12-3月雨季天空之镜有水的概率比较大。但雨季的秘鲁出行多有不便,同样玻利维亚的其他城市在雨季也不太适合旅行。这个季节高原地区的航班可能经常受天气影响而延误(沿海地区除外),出行更适合放在干旱的6-8月。但因为两国相近一起走比较方便,所以要权衡得失。玻利维亚和秘鲁大部分地区都在3000多米以上的高原上,个别地区超过4000米,所以即便是夏季12-2月来气温也不会太高。准确来说,温差会很大。晴天的时候温度会比较高,紫外线超级强,可以穿短袖;但早晚会比较清凉,需要添外套。若是阴天下雨,会变得很冷,需要毛衣甚至冲锋衣。其他季节来气温估计会更低。秘鲁沿海地区如利马和纳斯卡气温就比较高。但整体来说去玻利维亚秘鲁旅行需要多准备长袖和外套。鉴于玻利维亚天空之镜最好的季节在2月的正雨季,所以两个国家选择在中国的春节前后出行时最合适的。

         In addition to South America is generally to transfer the United States, in accordance with the requirements of the United States customs, as long as into the United States territory, even if the transfer, also need to hold a U.S. visa, so for a B1/B2 10-year U.S. visa is particularly important


season


Most of the travel agencies choose to visit Peru and Bolivia together, but theoretically Bolivia and Peru are not suitable for traveling together. Generally speaking, January and February are the best time for traveling together. Bolivia's sky mirror is suitable for rainy season travel, the rainy season sky mirror in December and march is more likely to have water. But Peru's rainy season is inconvenient, as are other cities in Bolivia. Flights in the highlands may be delayed due to the weather this season (except in coastal areas), and travel is better during the dry months of June and August. But because the two countries are close to each other, it is more convenient to go together, so the gains and losses should be weighed. Most of Bolivia and Peru are over 3,000 meters above the plateau, with some areas over 4,000 meters, so even the summer months of December and February are not too hot. To be precise, the temperature difference will be very large. Sunny days when the temperature will be relatively high, ultra strong uv, can wear short sleeves; But it will be cooler sooner or later. We need a coat. If it's cloudy and rainy, it can get very cold, and you'll need sweaters or even stormcoats. Temperatures are expected to be lower in other seasons. Coastal areas of Peru, such as Lima and nasca, are warmer. But a trip to Bolivia and Peru as a whole requires long sleeves and coats. Since Bolivia's skymirror season is best during the rainy season in February, the two countries chose the best time to travel around the Chinese New Year.


高原反应

秘鲁玻利维亚处在南美高原,乌尤尼盐湖海拔3650+米,Eduardo Abaroa自然保护区很多地方4500+米,波托西4090米,苏克雷2800+米,拉巴斯3600+米,的的喀喀湖3800+米,库斯科3400米,如果习惯生活在低海拔地区,刚到这里或多或少会有的高原反应。如果担心高原反应,切记刚到这边用餐用餐吃太饱,少吃肉多吃蔬菜还要戒酒,适应了后可以恢复正常饮食。另外多喝水也有助于缓解高反。可以准备一些抗高反的药,根据医生提示可以提前几天开始吃。玻利维亚和秘鲁人平时有吃古柯叶(Coca)的习惯,可以促进血液的循环并且提高供氧量。我在玻利维亚Eduardo Abaroa自然保护区参加三天团的时候司机就分这种叶子给我们尝试。这种叶子得长期吃才有效,临时吃药效不强。要注意的是这种古柯叶是毒品的原料,虽然在秘鲁和玻利维亚是合法的,但千万别带出国。

381/5000  

Altitude sickness


Peru and Bolivia are located on the South American plateau, with the salar DE uyuni at an altitude of 3,650 meters above sea level, Eduardo Abaroa nature reserve at 4,500 meters above sea level, potosi at 4,090 meters, sucre at 2,800 meters, la paz at 3,600 meters, titicaca at 3,800 meters and Cuzco at 3,400 meters. If you are worried about altitude sickness, please bear in mind that you are too full when you first come here. Eat less meat and more vegetables. Drinking lots of water can also help. You can prepare some anti-hyperactive drugs and start taking them a few days in advance according to your doctor's instructions. Bolivians and peruvians eat Coca from time to time, which improves blood circulation and oxygen supply. When I was on a three-day tour of the Eduardo Abaroa nature reserve in Bolivia, the driver gave us the leaves to try. This kind of leaf must be eaten for a long time to be effective. It is important to note that this coca leaf is the raw material of the drug, although it is legal in Peru and Bolivia, do not take it abroad.


关于交通

国际航班

 前往南美一般会选择转机美国的航班,一般为中转达拉斯居多(需持有美国签证并预留足够的转机时间,建议不少于2个小时),行李一般为直挂目的地。

境内航班

LATAM是智利航空和巴西航空合并后的航空公司,是南美最大的航空公司之一,航线涵盖智利、秘鲁、巴西、阿根廷、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔等国家。秘鲁境内可以选择该航空。LATAM比较Bug的地方是选择智利国民身份在西班牙语界面的状态下预订,价格会比英文界面时要便宜很多!可以看着翻译去买!官网:https://www.latam.com/en_un/

玻利维亚境内航班可以通过BOA官网购买:https://www.boa.bo/BoAWebsite

长途巴士

玻利维亚和秘鲁的巴士交通比较发达,也有很多巴士公司。秘鲁较有名的巴士公司是Cruz del Sur,玻利维亚比较靠谱的两家巴士公司分别是Todo Turismo和Panasur,一般到巴士站现场购买或者提前一天去了解班次买票都可以,也可以网上预订或者查询班次:

Cruz del Sur:http://www.cruzdelsur.com.pe/

Todo Turismo:http://www.todoturismo.bo

Panasur:http://uyunipanasur.com

补充提示:乌尤尼至拉巴斯大巴约8.5小时车程;乌尤尼至波托西巴士约3.5小时;乌尤尼至苏克雷巴士6.5小时;波托西至苏克雷3小时;拉巴斯至科帕卡瓦那约4小时;

Bolivia Hop和Peru Hop

这里推荐一种叫Hop-on hop-off bus的巴士。在玻利维亚叫Bolivia Hop,秘鲁那边叫Peru Hop,都是同一家公司,境内和跨境交通都有。可以上官网预定:

玻利维亚:https://www.boliviahop.com/


Tips:
这种巴士有几个优势:(1)既定线路涵盖多个热门城市,可停留任意天数,车票一年内有效;(2)提供酒店的接送服务,不用自己提着行李打车去车站买票;(3)车上配有英-西双语向导,详细记录管理每个人的住宿和用车日期,然后安排酒店的接送,贴心便利;(4)号称是当地最安全的巴士公司,不用担心偷盗问题。

玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍

About traffic


International flights


When going to South America, you will usually choose a flight connecting to the United States, which is usually connected to Dallas (you need to hold a U.S. visa and reserve enough connecting time, it is recommended that no less than 2 hours), and the luggage is usually directly linked to the destination.




The domestic flights


LATAM is the airline company merged by air Chile and air Brazil. It is one of the largest airlines in South America, with routes covering Chile, Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador and other countries. The airline is available in Peru. The Bug of LATAM is that it is much cheaper to choose Chilean national identity and book in the state of Spanish interface than in the English interface. Can look at the translation to buy! Website: https://www.latam.com/en_un/




Bolivia's flights can be purchased by the BOA's official website: https://www.boa.bo/BoAWebsite


The long distance bus


Bolivia and Peru's bus traffic is more developed, there are many bus companies. The famous bus company in Peru is Cruz del Sur, while the two reliable bus companies in Bolivia are Todo Turismo and tra ur. Generally, it is ok to purchase on site at the bus station or to know the shift or purchase tickets one day in advance, or to book or inquire the shift online:


通讯问题

玻利维亚主流的运营商包括Entel、Tigo和Viva,一般在街边的手机铺或者小摊都可以凭护照购买,价格比较便宜,sim卡大概Bs10(约10RMB),充值1G流量大约也是Bs10,但注意有效期可能只有7天。玻利维亚的城市里大都有4G信号,但城市间大山里就几乎没什么信号了。

若是用国内电话卡漫游,根据中国移动官网查询,国际漫游在秘鲁是30元一天无限流量;在玻利维亚则是每天90元封顶,流量50M封顶(超过50M上不了??)。联通没查到信息,但通常是要比移动贵的。

语言问题

玻利维亚和秘鲁都是说西班牙语的,当地人英语普及不高,酒店前台或房东一般倒会英语可以咨询当地的问题,但坐车、吃饭、问路等很少能用英语沟通的。不过这也不是太大的问题,攻略做足了很多时候也无需太多交流,实在需要就用谷歌翻译一段即可。比较高难度的是吃饭点餐,因为大部分餐馆的餐牌都只有西班牙语的。所以最好能在来之前掌握一些西班牙语食物的词汇,这样就不至于无从下手了。

安全问题

这个是广大旅行者最关心的问题。同墨西哥一样,大家普遍对拉丁美洲持有偏见。实际行走来看,秘鲁和玻利维亚整体民风相当之淳朴,甚至有些闭塞。秘鲁首都利马和库斯科为游人集中的区域,偶尔会有偷盗,注意防范。总体来讲,秘鲁和玻利维亚对于旅行者的安全来说是很友好的。


Tips:


【货币】玻利维亚货币名为玻利维亚诺BOB,简写Bs,100USD≈Bs685,和等值人民币差不多。

【现金】报团、买车票、门票很多情况下可能需要付现金,另外预订住宿时最好查清楚该酒店是否接受信用卡,一般便宜的酒店多收现金,所以要带够现金。

【刷卡】玻利维亚不能用银联,但很多地方都可以刷VISA或MASTER的信用卡都比较方便。不过南美盗刷信用卡的情况严重,建议多带两张卡,万一一张被盗刷,冻结了还有另一张可以用。

【防晒】高原地区紫外线都非常强,一定要做好防晒准备。

【入境卡】玻利维亚在入境时都要填写入境表,然后会给一张入境纸,一定要保管好,出境的时候需要收回的。




重要城市

拉巴斯

这里被称为南美的西藏。不仅仅是因为它的湖光山色,Uyuni湖倒映出的纯净天空让人心旷神怡,更魅惑人的在于这里似乎是南美最传统的国家,保留了最纯正美国印第安人血统(Amerindian)血统,走在拉巴斯街头看到带着毡帽、围着红披巾、大腹便便的妇人向你微笑,一路欢歌的行驶在安第斯山脉直奔贝利湖(Rio Beni)附近的雨林,玻利维亚尽管是最贫穷国家之一,但你在苏克雷(Sucre)依旧可以和乐观进取的当地人打成一片。

来玻利维亚当一回Amerindian吧!开始一场寻找印加古文明的探险,一次奔向最原始自然环境的回归,一种与繁华浮躁临时隔绝的奇妙体验。

 世界上最高的首都。拉巴斯坐落在高原山谷盆地间,海拔3600多米,周围四面群山环绕。想想我国的西藏拉萨,也不过这个海拔。其实迈入玻利维亚就离不开与高海拔亲密接触,毕竟玻利维亚也有着南美西藏的称谓。 拉巴斯虽为首都,但是毕竟为南美GDP倒数第一玻利维亚的首都,整个城市远看像一个大型的平民窟,以为坐落在巨大的平地上,地势高低起伏,市区内基本上没有公共交通系统,玻利维亚政府倾尽国力修建了还算完善的缆车系统,票价单程3块钱(玻利维亚币值和人民币相当),基本上算是国家补贴的公共交通系统,类似于几年前的北京地铁。

但到了晚上,整个城市灯火通明,展现出了一派繁华的景象,搭乘缆车来到Killi观景台,你甚至可以看到修建在密密麻麻建筑中间的一座足球场!

女巫市场!这大概是驻足拉巴斯的非常重要的一个原因。听上去颇为神秘和诡异。其实就是一条售卖玻利维亚本土特色纪念品的街,很多羊驼毛制品,也有一些奇奇怪怪莫以名状的小玩意。很多小店门口挂着风干的草泥马宝宝尸体,颇为恶心,据说当地人建房时会将这种东西埋在地下,祈祷带来好运。行走其中,到处还充斥着一种不太讨人喜欢的草药味道。其实世界上类似的地方还有很多,比如墨西哥的索诺拉以及非洲的多哥。


苏克雷

玻利维亚的宪法首都,尴尬的存在。1809年打响了南美反对西班牙殖民统治的第一枪,星星之火可以燎原,革命之火迅速蔓延整个南美洲,最终却是最后解放的首都写进了宪法。苏克雷整个小镇人口20万,大部分房屋被涂成白色,所以被称为白城。漫步在小城中,非常舒服,这里的时间很慢。

波托西

如果说拉巴斯是世界上海拔最高的首都,那么波托西可以称之为世界上海拔最高的城市了,海拔超过4000米。

16世纪,西班牙人在这里发现了世界上最丰富的银矿,波托西一夜暴富!17世纪上半叶,这里人口接近20万,是西半球最大的城市。银产量几乎占了世界的一半!80多座教堂拔地而起,到18世纪末,城内的街道都用银子“铺砌”。 这里的银矿,在长达两个多世纪里支撑着西班牙的经济!

当年的殖民地排行榜里,玻利维亚才是财富的中心,布宜诺斯艾利斯之流,都只是鸟不拉屎的穷乡僻壤。但是好景不长,这个以银矿发达的城市兴于矿业,也衰于矿业。19世纪玻利维亚独立后,这座城市的财富被洗劫一空,大部分都转移回了欧洲和西班牙,银矿也开采枯竭,城市由盛转衰。随后发展起来的锡矿给波托西重新带来了活力,但始终也不复当年。在开采银矿的300年间,西班牙殖民者强迫当地印第安人劳动,惨绝人寰的的开采吞噬了800万印第安人的生命,里克山也因为开采硬生生下降了16米!

这里最知名的旅游项目是矿井游。说到矿井游很多人会想到波兰的矿井咖啡厅和哥伦比亚的地下盐教堂。但是在波托西,你是真的下矿井!体验旷工的劳作,想象一下,钻入在海拔4600米的矿井,漫无天日氧气稀少,空气中弥漫着刺鼻的二氧化硫气体,伴随着剧烈的高仿,头痛欲裂!还有一点,你甚至可以在矿井中引爆一根雷管。

仅里克山就有将近8000个矿洞,5万多名矿工每天劳作6-8个小时,他们的基本寿命在35-40岁,很多都患上了尘肺不治身亡···在矿井中最令我印象深刻的是几乎每个矿井里面都有一个矿神。这本身是西班牙殖民者采取了印加帝国传统的“米塔”劳役制,即奴隶轮流服劳役,经过一段时间可获得自由人的权利的制度。他们利用这根本不存在的神从精神上麻痹印第安人,现在却成为了一个伪宗教的象征保存了下来。千百年来,宗教贯穿着统治的始末,这也是最黑暗的讽刺。矿神的下体非常的庞大,象征了繁衍和生命的生生不息。在下矿井之前,我们(作为旷工)会饮下96%的酒精并献祭为矿神,同时为矿神点上一根烟,获得它的保护。


Tips: about 8.5 hours from uyuni to la paz bus; Bus from uyuni to potosi takes about 3.5 hours; 6.5hrs from uyuni to sucre bus; 3 hours from potosi to sucre; About 4 hours from la paz to copacavana;




Bolivia Hop and Peru Hop


Hop-on Hop- off bus is recommended. It's called Bolivia Hop in Bolivia and Peru Hop in Peru. They're the same company, with both domestic and cross-border transportation. You can book on the official website:




Bolivia: https://www.boliviahop.com/




Tips:


The bus has several advantages :(1) the established route covers many popular cities, can stay for any number of days, and the ticket is valid for one year; (2) to provide the hotel's shuttle service, do not have to carry their own luggage taxi to the station to buy tickets; (3) the car is equipped with an english-spanish bilingual guide, who can record and manage each person's accommodation and car date in detail, and then arrange the hotel pickup, which is considerate and convenient; (4) it claims to be the safest bus company in the region, so there is no need to worry about theft.


Communication problems


Mainstream operators in Bolivia include Entel, Tigo and Viva. Generally, you can buy mobile phone shops or stalls on the street with your passport. The price is relatively cheap. Most Bolivian cities have 4G, but there is very little in the mountains between cities.




If using domestic phone card roaming, according to China mobile official website query, international roaming in Peru is 30 yuan a day unlimited traffic; In Bolivia, it is capped at 90 yuan per day with a flow of 50M. ). Unicom did not find the information, but is usually more expensive than mobile.




Language problem


Bolivia and Peru both speak Spanish, and English is not widely used by the local people. Hotel receptionists or landlords usually speak English and can consult local problems, but rarely can they communicate in English when taking a bus, having a meal or asking for directions. But this is not too big a problem, strategy done a lot of time also do not need too much communication, really need to use Google translation of a paragraph. The tricky part is ordering, as most restaurants only have Spanish menus. So it's a good idea to have some Spanish food vocabulary before you come, so you don't run out of ideas.




Security issues


This is the biggest concern of most travelers. Like Mexico, there is widespread prejudice against Latin America. Actually walking, Peru and Bolivia as a whole folk customs are quite simple, and even some closed. Peru's capital Lima and cusco for visitors concentrated areas, occasionally there will be theft, pay attention to guard. In general, Peru and Bolivia are friendly to the safety of travellers.




Tips:


[currency] Bolivian currency is called bolivar BOB, short for Bs, 100USD Bs685, approximately equivalent to RMB.




【 cash 】 the group, buy tickets, tickets in many cases may need to pay cash, in addition, when booking accommodation had better check whether the hotel accept credit CARDS, generally cheap hotel overcharge cash, so to bring enough cash.




[credit card] unionpay is not available in Bolivia, but it is convenient to use VISA or MASTER credit card in many places. Nevertheless the case that South American pilfer brushs credit card is serious, the proposal takes two more CARDS, in case one is brushed by pilfer, froze to still have another can use.




[prevent bask in] the ultraviolet ray of highland area is very strong, must prepare to prevent bask in.




[disembarkation card] Bolivia must fill in the disembarkation form when entering the country, and then will give a piece of entry paper, must keep well, need to take back when leaving the country.






Important city


La paz,


It's called the Tibet of South America. Not only because of its beauty of lakes and mountains, Uyuni lake reflected the pure sky, let a person find the scenery pleasing to both the more people the charm is that there seems to be the most traditional of South American countries, remains the pure American Indian descent Amerindian ancestry, walking in the streets of la paz see around with a felt hat, red shawl, paunchy woman smiles at you, singing all the way down in the andes to the bailey (Rio Beni) the rainforest near the lake, although Bolivia is one of the most poor countries, but you can in Sucre (Sucre) and optimistic enterprising locals.




Come to Bolivia and be an Amerindian! An expedition to find the ancient Inca civilization, a return to the most primitive natural environment, a wonderful experience of temporary isolation from the bustling and impetuous.




The tallest capital in the world. La paz is located in the valley of the plateau basin, more than 3,600 meters above sea level, surrounded by mountains. Think of Lhasa in Tibet, China. In fact, entering Bolivia is inseparable from close contact with high altitude. After all, Bolivia also has the name of Tibet in South America. La paz is the capital, but, after all, as the capital of Bolivia South America GDP last far to see the whole city is like a huge slums, flat ground that sits atop the massive, terrain ups and downs, urban area has virtually no public transportation system, the Bolivian government bending strength is relatively perfect cable car system built, fares 3 dollars currency and RMB (Bolivia), basically as the public transport system of state subsidies, similar to a few years ago the Beijing subway.








But at night, the whole city is brightly lit, showing a prosperous scene. Take the cable car to the Killi observation platform, and you can even see a football field built in the middle of a dense building!




Witch market! This is probably a very important reason to stop in la paz. It sounds mysterious and weird. It's a street of Bolivian memorabilia, a lot of alpaca wool, and some weird little things. Many of the shops are covered with the disgusting dried grass and mud carcasses of baby horses, which locals are said to bury in the ground for good luck when building their houses. The walk was filled with an unpleasant herbal smell. In fact, there are many similar places in the world, such as Sonora in Mexico and Togo in Africa.












sucre


Bolivia's constitutional capital, an embarrassment. In 1809, the first shots were fired in South America against the Spanish colonial rule. A single spark could set fire to the whole South America. The whole town of sucre has a population of 200,000 and most of the houses are painted white, so it is called the white city. Walking in the small town, very comfortable, here the time is slow.












potosi


If la paz is the highest capital city in the world, potosi is the highest city in the world, more than 4,000 meters above sea level.




In the 16th century, the Spanish discovered the richest silver mine in the world. In the first half of the 17th century, with a population of nearly 200,000, it was the largest city in the western hemisphere. It produces almost half the world's silver! More than 80 churches were built, and by the end of the 18th century its streets were "paved" with silver. The silver mines here sustained the Spanish economy for more than two centuries!




In the colonial league tables of the past, Bolivia was the centre of wealth, and Buenos Aires and its ilk were backwaters. But the good times did not last long. The city, with its silver mines, thrived in the mining industry, and it also failed in the mining industry. After Bolivia's independence in the 19th century, the city's wealth was plundered, much of it returned to Europe and Spain, silver mining dried up and the city went from boom to bust. The subsequent development of tin gave potosi new life, but never the same. During the 300 years of silver mining, the Spanish colonists forced the local indians to work. The extremely cruel mining swallowed the lives of 8 million indians.








The most famous tour here is the mine tour. Many people think of the mine cafes in Poland and the underground salt churches in Colombia. But in potosi, you actually went down the mine! Experience absenteeism. Imagine drilling into a mine 4,600 meters above sea level. Oxygen is scarce. You can even set off a detonator in a mine.












Rick mountain alone has nearly 8,000 mining caves. More than 50,000 miners work 6 to 8 hours a day. Their basic life span is between 35 and 40 years old. The Spanish colonists themselves adopted the Inca empire's traditional "minta" system of servitude, in which slaves took turns in servitude and gained the rights of free men after a period of time. They used the non-existent god to mentally paralyze the indians, which is now preserved as a pseudo-religious symbol. For thousands of years, religion ran through the beginning and end of the reign, which is also the darkest irony. The lower body of the mining god is very large, symbolizing reproduction and the endless life. Before we go down the mine, we drink 96% alcohol and offer a sacrifice to the mine-god, while lighting a cigarette for his protection.




























uyuni


Sky mirror - come to Bolivia 99% for it! Without further ado, look at the picture.












































As early as when I was in primary school, I saw the salar DE uyuni in the encyclopedia of nature. Later, the documentary Bolivian sky mirror was shot by NHK, and the salar became popular.




It can be said that I have experienced many obstacles when I came to Bolivia before. There are very few flights and you have to transfer from the United States or Europe. There are very few local guides and guides to find, let alone speak English, and it's just a documentary exploration.




But in recent years there has been a big boost, thanks to the Japanese promotion of uyuni, and now the town has gathered more than 20 travel agencies to run uyuni's three-day, two-night tour as well as its starry and sunset Tours. In 2016, uyuni has unilaterally opened its visa-on-arrival policy to China, and with the increasing convenience of flights, it is no longer a dream to set foot in this landless land.








































Uyuni sky mirror only has a large area of water during the rainy season from January to march every year, which is the real strength of uyuni.




In fact, uyuni can find water all year round, but the size is different. It's up to the driver to find water! Water can also be found in many tuhao's private charter cars. By contrast, the Hodaka travel agency is the cheapest and the conditions are much worse. If you want to see a windless mirror, join a sunrise group instead of a sunset group. Although sunrise group is laborious, but the probability of no wind is a bit bigger. We had seen pictures of sunsets taken by other people, and the water was mostly sparkling. So, in fact, uyuni can find the mirror of the sky all year round! Uyuni during the rainy season is more spectacular, but if your vacation is limited, you won't regret it.




































With the discovery that the salt lake could be used to extract the essential element Li for lithium batteries, many countries have sensed a business opportunity. Today, the government of uyuni is open to cooperation for the development of the country and the happiness of the people. You know, for the last 50 years or so, the Bolivian government has been determined to defend this pure land of the earth. Today, six factories have been built in the yantian area, two of which are directly invested by China. Therefore, it is necessary to go to the sky mirror as soon as possible, and it is quite possible that this paradise will disappear from the earth




How should the sky mirror play without water?
































































The endless flat and arid salt flat has always been a place where people's imagination is rich and creative. The principle is very simple, two people one before one after or prop in the former behind, separated by appropriate distance. The camera is close enough to the person in front or the prop, usually the person taking the picture has to squat down or even lie on the ground to appear extremely huge foreground and the person behind is extremely small, thus creating the illusion.




The cactus island


There are some "islets" in the vast salt lake, the most special of which is the cactus island Isla Incahuasi. The place where we saw the sunrise was right next to it. "Landing" only to find that the cactus is so huge, and the whole island is full, a wonder. It is said that the cactus annual growth of 1 cm or so, the island cactus less than a few hundred years more than a thousand years, should be able to practice into fine?




















Train the graveyard


The railway cemetery is just 3km from the town of uyuni, the site of a decline in the local mining industry and a territorial dispute with Chile that led to the abandonment of the railway. In theory, a pile of rusty and abandoned locomotive still has a sense of desolation and The Times, if no one in the evening may be a few pieces of large.
































colchani


Coming out of the salt marsh, it passes through the village of Colchani, more than 20km from the town of uyuni, which is the gateway to the mirror of the sky. The tour groups will stop here for 20-30 minutes to buy souvenirs for tourists. It's actually a simple dirt road lined with small shops selling souvenirs, mostly made of alpaca wool, a specialty fabric with a wide variety of colors. Consumption in Bolivia is relatively low. Whatever the quality, the goods sold here are relatively cheap.
















The old railroad in Salar DE Chiguana


Chiguana salt flats, down to about 3,600 meters above sea level. The salt flats are small and there was nothing to see but a deserted old railway line passing through the area as a point of interest (our salt lake chaka has a similar railway).




By the end of the 19th century the Bolivian government had planned to build a railway to carry the salt mines of uyuni to the coast for export to Europe, from uyuni to kalama, Chile. But then a territorial dispute with Chile shut the country down, and the mining industry grew slowly and eventually decayed in the 1940s. The railway was abandoned.




Here's a quick history of Bolivia (which is really a sad country).




Bolivia became independent during the Latin American war of independence in the 18th century, when it was rescued by a national hero, bolivar, from Caracas, venezuela. Independence from Spain was declared on August 6, 1825. It formed a union with Peru in 1836 and was dissolved by the Chilean invasion in 1839. In 1863, a rich deposit of saltpetre was discovered in the Pacific coast province of atacama. In 1879, Chile sent troops to occupy the mining area, and Bolivia joined with Peru to fight the "Pacific war" with Chile. Defeated in 1883, Bolivia ceded the salt-rich Pacific coast to Chile in 1904, losing its only coastal area


乌尤尼

天空之镜——来玻利维亚99%为了它!不多说,看图吧。

玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍

早在上小学的时候,就从大自然百科全书里看到了乌尤尼盐湖,后来日本NHK电视台拍摄了《玻利维亚·天空之镜》的纪录片,这片盐湖一下子火了起来。

之前来玻利维亚可谓是经历重重阻碍,签证需要邀请函需要反签;航班非常少还必须要从美国或者欧洲转机。当地能找到的地接和向导非常少,更不用说会说英文了,仅仅还是停留在纪录片探索的阶段。

但是近几年有了非常大的利好,感谢日本人对于乌尤尼的宣传,如今这座小镇已经聚集了超过20家旅行社经营乌尤尼三天两夜团以及星空和日落团。在2016年,乌尤尼已经单方面向中国开放了落地签政策,加上航班越来越便捷,踏足这片无主之地已经不再是梦想。

乌尤尼天空之镜每年也仅仅有1-3月雨季的时间才会有大面积的水面,这是乌尤尼真正实力的时间。

其实乌尤尼一年四季都是能找到水的,只是面积大小不同。能不能找到水完全取决于司机!很多土豪一点的私人团包车也能找到水。相比之下,Hodaka旅行社又是最便宜的了,条件自然也差很多。如果你想看无风的镜面,推荐参加日出团而不是日落团。日出团虽然辛苦,但无风的概率更大一点。我们当时见过其他人拍的日落团照片,水面基本都是波光粼粼的。所以,其实乌尤尼一年四季都是能找到天空之镜的!雨季的乌尤尼确实会更壮观,但如果你假期很局限,倒也不会留下遗憾。

玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍

随着人们发现这篇盐湖可以提炼锂电池必须的Li元素之后,很多国家已经嗅到了这片商机。现如今,乌尤尼政府为了国家的发展和人民的幸福,也开放了合作。你要知道,在过去的近五十年,玻利维亚政府都在誓死保卫这片地球上的净土。现如今,这片盐田已经兴建了6座工厂,其中中国直接投资的有两家,所以说,去看天空之镜要趁早,很有可能这片天堂般梦幻的景色也将会在地球上消失···

没有水的天空之镜应该如何玩?

一望无际平坦干旱的盐田一向都是人们脑洞大开发挥创意的地方,常年走在这里的司机一般都会有那么几个固定的拍照套路帮游客拍。原理很简单,两人一前一后或道具在前人在后,相隔适当的距离。相机离前面的人或道具足够的近,通常拍照的人都要蹲下甚至趴在地上才会显得前景无比巨大而后面的人特别渺小,从而产生错觉。

仙人掌岛

浩瀚的盐湖中有一些“小岛”,最为特别的当属仙人掌岛Isla Incahuasi。我们看日出的地方就在其旁边,远看不觉得有何特别。“登陆”后才发现仙人掌居然如此之巨大,而且整个岛都长得满满的,蔚为奇观。据说这些仙人掌每年生长1厘米左右,岛上的仙人掌少则几百年多则上千年,应该能修炼成精吧?

火车墓地

距离乌尤尼镇只有3公里火车墓地,之前提过这里是当地采矿业衰落加之与智利领土争端而导致铁路废弃而造成的。理论上一堆生锈废弃的火车头还是颇有荒凉感和时代感,若是在无人的黄昏也许可以出几张大片。

科尔查尼村

从盐沼出来会经过科尔查尼村(Colchani),距离乌尤尼镇20多公里,是通往天空之镜的必经之地。来往的团都会在这停留个20-30分钟给游客买纪念品。其实就一条简单的泥路,两旁是售卖纪念品的小商店,多以特产的羊驼毛织品为主,五颜六色琳琅满目。玻利维亚的消费比较低,不论品质,这里卖的东西都是相对比较便宜的。

Salar de Chiguana的老铁路

Chiguana盐田,海拔降到3600米左右。此处盐田面积不大,原本没什么看点的,只是因为有一段废弃的老铁路经过此地,算是个摄点(我们的查卡盐湖也有一条类似的铁路)。

19世纪末玻利维亚政府曾打算修筑铁路把乌尤尼的盐矿运到沿海再出口到欧洲,铁路从乌尤尼修到智利的卡拉马。但后来因为和智利发生领土争端导致波国闭关锁国,加之采矿工业缓慢发展且最终在20世纪40年代衰败,铁路也最终被废弃。

这里插播一下玻利维亚的历史(这个国家的确蛮悲催的)。

玻利维亚在18世纪间的拉丁美洲独立战争中,被一位从委内瑞拉的加拉加斯来的民族英雄——玻利瓦尔解救而独立,所以国名便以他的名字为名。1825年8月6日宣布从西班牙独立,取名玻利瓦尔共和国,后改为现名。1836年同秘鲁组成联邦,1839年由于智利入侵而瓦解。1863年,太平洋沿岸的阿塔卡马省发现丰富的硝石矿藏。1879年智利出兵占领矿区,玻利维亚与秘鲁联合,同智利发生“太平洋战争”。1883年玻利维亚战败,于1904年将盛产硝石的太平洋沿岸地区割让给智利,玻利维亚丧失其唯一滨海省份,包括重要港口安托法加斯塔,从此成为内陆国。可以说玻利维亚一直都是南美历史上的软柿子和冤大头,两次侵略战争都战败,大量国土,与我国清政府可谓同命相连。

Eduardo Abaroa自然保护区

如果说乌尤尼只有天空之镜可以看那就大错特错了!欧美人钟爱的景点就是这个99%的人从来没有听说过的国家公园。我把这个公园命名为南美州的黄石国家公园,因为这里的景点实在是太全面了,从火山到地热温泉,红湖、蓝湖、绿湖、黑湖、白湖,奇石林立,连绵不绝的雪山,优雅的火烈鸟。你甚至可以在这个国家公园一天之内体验四季的变化!


Tips:
进入Eduardo Abaroa自然保护区海拔会持续升高,海拔会持续在4000米以上爬升(类似于在西藏阿里旅行的感觉)。旅行期间一定要注意自己的身体状况,备足高原反应的药物以及防脱水的冲剂。如果出现身体不适请随时反映给同行伙伴和司机,留足休息时间,切勿硬撑,带来对身体的伤害。


Laguna Honda/Hedionda/Canapa

名字太复杂。我把它们命名为蓝湖、红湖和黑湖。这里最大的亮点就是拍摄火烈鸟了。虽然火烈鸟在国人和欧美人眼里像熊猫一样珍贵,但在这里,就像鸡一样随处可见。

Árbol de Piedra 石头树

进入西罗里Siloli Desert,平坦的荒漠中会经过几块突兀的岩石,尤以树岩Arbol de Piedra(Stone Tree)最为特别。这是一块经历千百年风沙侵蚀雕琢而成树状的岩石,下端细上端宽,造型十分独特,让人惊叹大自然的鬼斧神工。

除此之外树岩背景的远山也是十分独特,呈红橙白多彩相间,山麓还有些浅黄的植被,加上如洗的蓝天,层次丰富,远远看去煞是好看。穿过Siloli Desert进入一处小峡谷,两旁是崎岖乱石,这一带生长着一种颇为特别的高原苔藓植物,有点像椰菜花一般呈伞状弧形,色泽嫩绿,颇为可爱。不过此时的我还是有点高反头晕,无精打采的,并没有下车去拍照。

红湖Laguna Colorada

这是行程中最为惊艳的地方之一,所以哪怕头痛也得坚持去。

下车后,刺骨的寒风吹来,你会突然意识到,已经从乌尤尼的夏天来到了冬天。我们在寒风瑟瑟中缠着单薄的衣服和裤衩,愣头青的被寒风吹了半个小时,拍摄视频素材,真是不易。之所以呈红色是因为湖底有温泉滋养着一种红色的藻类和其他一些微生物。除此之外,湖中还分布着大片白色的崩砂沉积物(borax deposits),与红色形成强烈的色彩对比,还有之间交织的各种深浅色彩,层次丰富,真心是一种视觉盛宴。若是在早晚有点光线,估计还会另有一翻色彩与震撼。从高处远观,湖面上静静觅食的火烈鸟如散落的小音符一般奇妙,而其倒影恰似叠置的和弦,谱写着一曲美妙的视觉乐谱。

湖东面有一小片区域估计是温泉渗出的区域,清晨的湖面上缭绕着丝丝雾气,如梦似幻,配合着仙鹤般的火烈鸟那静静的剪影和倒影,宛如仙境,画面着实让人无比惊叹。我那小伙伴心急的走下湖边,却不小心惊动了岸边的鸟群,全都展翅“鹤立”远走,也是一番奇景。

地热田Geiser Sol de Mañana

我把它称为沸腾的泥浆。这种景色在黄石国家公园里面有类似,但是你要知道,只有在玻利维亚这片鸟不拉屎的无人区你可以直接站在翻滚的泥浆方便,炽热的水蒸气不断向你袭来,直接感受来自火山地热的冲击!返回的途中,你的双脚都会被这片黑土地的泥土厚厚的粘上一层,瞬间身高增高五厘米。

这是自然保护区内经过的最高的一处景点,海拔高达4885米。西班牙语中Sol de Mañana意为早晨的太阳,Geiser Sol de Mañana大致可翻成旭日地热泉。但实际上这里不是常规理解的那种喷涌热泉的间歇泉地带,而是一块地热田,主要由蒸汽池和泥浆池组成,最为代表性的一处时刻冒着蒸汽的蒸汽池,据说每天早上蒸汽受压喷涌可以高达50米。这片地热田的地貌要比之前在智利去的El Tatio间歇泉要好看很多,有许多坑坑洼洼灰白色的热泥浆池,池边有黄色的硫磺痕迹,再稍远地带是橙白相间的泥土,所以看上去色彩层次十分丰富好看。

小温泉与Salar de Chalviri

离开两湖疾驰在南美高原上,穿过Daly Desert(Desierto Dali),一路欣赏着苍茫的荒漠。这里依旧是高山加沙漠气候,空气十分干燥,同时异常通透,所以远山景色也更显壮美。远处渺小的四驱车奔驰在荒漠上,如天地一蜉蝣,却带起滚滚扬尘,意境挺美的,不过车要跟得太贴或者刚被其他车超过那就悲催了,那扬尘会扑面而来。因为吉普车常年走这些地方,空调积尘太多打开也都是灰,所以是不会开的,而且窗外其实温度并不算高。但偏偏关着窗会闷热,所以又不得不开窗,而开着窗又意味着时不时有扬尘,然后得马上关上。哪怕这样,一路还是吸入不少。约1个小时抵达Salar de Chalviri,此处也是一个高原盐湖。湖边就是温泉池子Termas de Polques。从乌尤尼出发的旅行团会在这里住一晚,想象下,经过了一天的劳累和高原的璀璨,你拖着疲惫的身体进入这个雪山下的温泉池中,瞬间身体的所有毛孔全部打开,这是如此享受的感觉!最重要的是,这个仙境般的高端完全,只需要6块钱!

白湖与绿湖Laguna Blanca & Verde

白湖因高浓度的矿物而呈现白色,清浅透奶白,纯净又平静地倒映着远山和蓝天,让人心旷神怡。湖上还有些精灵般的高原候鸟。Eduardo Abaroa自然保护区最后一个景点是绿湖(Laguna Verde),湖水因为富含镁、碳酸钙、铅和砷等矿物呈现宝石般的绿色。尤其在有风和阳光的时候格外鲜艳。湖的对面耸立着这片地区的最高峰,Volcán Licancabur。这座火山高耸入云,也是玻利维亚和智利的界峰。过了这座山,就是智利北部的阿塔卡玛沙漠了。那里是世界上最干旱的地区之一,还有都敏俊教授最爱的,最像他家乡的地方


Tips:
玻利维亚过境智利:


过了绿湖之后,从乌尤尼出发的旅行团会有两个选择:原路返回乌尤尼或者国境前往智利。智利在持有美签的情况下是免签的,如果需要前往智利,旅行团会重新安排车辆,其他的人搭乘原车经过8个小时左右的跋涉返回乌尤尼小镇


的的喀喀湖

的的喀喀湖位于玻利维亚和秘鲁的交界处,是南美洲海拔最高的可通航淡水湖。四周雪山环绕,湖水湛蓝如海,风景如画。这里是南美的“母亲湖”,众多文明的摇篮。之前讲过的蒂亚瓦纳科文明,以及后来的印加文明,都发源自的的喀喀湖畔。湖中几十个岛屿仍然有人居住,至今仍保留着传统的生活方式。游览的的喀喀湖,可以从玻利维亚的科帕卡巴纳或秘鲁的普诺分别前往。两侧风景相似,人文却各有不同。

这是是衔接玻利维亚和秘鲁过境必须经过的岸口。玻利维亚这边城市叫做科帕卡瓦纳。这个名字取自里约热内卢那个举世闻名的海滩。乍一看,还真像一个海滨小城。

的的喀喀湖的湖水蓝得令人惊艳,叫人分不清是海还是湖。镇子不大,主街上全是客栈、餐厅和旅行社,仿佛一夜回到印度果阿,充满了嬉皮风情;秘鲁这边城市叫做普诺(之前玻利维亚没有落地签之前,很多南美的旅行者会选择在这里的领事馆办理玻利维亚签证,一个工作日出,极具效率。办签证的老大爷也是和蔼可亲。现在玻利维亚已经开放了落地签,所以除非是有陆路国境的情怀,基本上不太会有旅行者会选择在这里办理签证了)。

利用Hop-on hop-off bus的交通方式衔接,提供酒店的接送又解决了两国之间的过境接驳,还能兼顾路上景点游玩。巴士公司在玻利维亚这边叫Bolivia Hop,秘鲁那边过来的叫Peru Hop,都是同一家公司。除了拉巴斯至库斯科外,还有不少秘鲁境内的旅游线路。通过网上购买某条线路套票,可以在线路经停的城市下来任意安排几天,之后再坐回同一家公司的车就可以。车上配有双语向导,详细记录管理每个人的住宿和用车日期,然后安排酒店到酒店的接送,相当体贴便利。再一点是可以在预定巴士票的时候顺便预订线路上的团,比如太阳岛半日游和普诺漂浮岛团。从巴士票到小团价格都很实惠,向导指引也清晰,所以强烈推荐。


Tips:
关于过境:


离开科帕卡瓦纳,Bolivia Hop向导先带我们到出入境处办理玻利维亚出境,然后步行百来米到秘鲁海关办理入境。这个过程需要提着行李过关,之后换成Peru Hop更宽敞舒服的巴士。过境后还要坐两个半小时才抵达普诺。因为巴士较大,到普诺后会安排小巴把乘客送到各自预订的酒店。



太阳岛

算是我认为比较坑的景点,徒有虚名。从码头坐船大概70分钟才抵达太阳岛。太阳岛是的的喀喀湖上最大的岛,也是古印加人祭日祀太阳神的地方。船从南码头登陆,然后沿着所谓的印加古道往北走向北码头,并在那里上船返回,徒步大约一小时。沿途可以从岛上高处俯瞰湛蓝的的的喀喀湖,刚好碰上下午放晴,倒是稍微有风景可看,但绝对称不上很让人惊喜,据说岛上有些印加古遗迹,但并没有看到。

乌鲁人浮岛

可谓的的喀喀湖重头戏,不容错过!

这些漂浮岛岛民最早是住在的的喀喀湖一带的印第安土著——乌鲁人,后来为了逃离印加帝国的统治,一些人逃到了船上住在湖里。他们发现芦苇的根茎是可以漂浮的,于是以其建造漂浮岛以芦苇编制房子,从此住在岛上。我们在参观岛上看了岛主示范建造一个漂浮岛的过程,并展示了岛民起居生活,向导从旁解说。

有人说参观漂浮岛比较商业化,因为都是必须跟团去的,到了岛上肯定也是作秀和卖手工艺品,跟我们到一些少数民族村落差不多,旅游业发展也大都如此。其实也很难不如此,漂浮岛在的的喀喀湖西北角一个自然保护区内。

据介绍这些岛大约有90个左右,虽然都在附近,但不是完全相连的。这些岛基本上以家族为单位的,大的岛也就四五六百平米,不可能有固定航线码头让游客自行前往的,而且每个岛的承载能力也有限制。所以只能跟团统一安排。

不同旅行社估计是跟不同岛合作的,一船二三十人到其中一两个岛去参观,并不算拥挤人多。当然你没办法觉得哪个岛好看就去哪个,时间也不长。不过有英文讲解,整体来说也算达到涨见识的效果,有好有坏吧。

建一个漂浮岛需要几乎一年的时间。人们会在夏季末挖掘芦苇的根,通常这个时候芦苇长得最高,其根茎也最为茂密,连带一些泥盘错在一起。这些根很轻,可以漂浮。人们按块状来挖掘这些根茎,然后一块块的用绳子捆绑起来,结成漂浮小岛的“地基”,这个过程就要花4-5个月。

之后在地基上铺上一层又一层的芦苇,使得岛面高于水面,然后在上面以芦苇编制各种草房,又花几个月。因为住在这种地方湿气很重,所以草房通常要垫高两个台阶。岛面每两周都要铺设一层新的芦苇,不然会逐渐被浸湿。岛主向我们示范,轻轻扒开一个小洞,下层的芦苇都是湿的,随手抓出一把都可以像毛巾一样拧出水。这种漂浮岛通常寿是30-35年,因为根茎会自然腐化消解,久而久之岛会变得不太扎实,人们不得不重新造一个。所以,这门手艺也就代代相传至今。

比较有意思的是,登岛的时候,身着当地服饰的大妈会对你载歌载舞,而岛上的男人确实基本上什么都不做的。在参观完岛上生活后,热情的乌鲁人还会邀请你乘坐他们的水上奔驰——芦苇编制的小船。根据当地习俗,如果一个男孩想要追求一个女孩子就需要亲手制作一艘这样的奔驰,然后就可以来接女孩子,随后划入小树林,做一些羞羞的事情。

总是这艘简单的穿承载了乌鲁人生活的很大一部分,交通、捕鱼、甚至结婚生子。这个项目是自费的(虽然很少的钱),建议大家乘坐,也算是支持当地居民的生活。全部行程结束后,当地的大妈也会携着孩子,为你演唱送别的歌曲,歌声在广阔的的的喀喀湖上飘荡,却是非常的动听。

其实后来想想,乌鲁人的生活和马来西亚的巴瑶族是非常类似的,同为水上的原始部落,几年前同巴瑶族生活的那两天至今对喔产生的影响是非常深远的,可惜现在被旅行团一拥而上的洪流淹没彻底改变了味道。希望乌鲁人可以保留她们淳朴和简单的方面,我们不要过多的打扰她们。

玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍

Red lake Laguna Colorada


It's one of the most amazing parts of the trip, so stick with it even if it's a headache.




When you get out of the car and a bone-chilling wind blows, you suddenly realize that winter has arrived from the summer in uyuni. We were wrapped in thin clothes and shorts in the cold wind. We were stunned by the cold wind for half an hour. It was really not easy to shoot video material. It's red because there are hot springs at the bottom of the lake that nourish a red algae and other microbes. In addition, the lake also features large areas of white borax deposits, which form strong color contrasts with red, and interwoven various shades of color, with rich layers, which are truly a visual feast. If a little light in the morning and evening, it is estimated that there will be another turn color and shock. Seen from above, the flamingos quietly foraging on the lake are as wonderful as scattered small notes, while their reflections are like superimposed chords, composing a wonderful visual score.





To the east of the lake there is a small area where the hot spring is supposed to seep out. In the early morning, the lake is shrouded in a dreamlike mist, and the tranquil silhouettes and reflections of flamingos like cranes make it a wonderland. The picture is really amazing. My little friend was eager to go down to the lake, but accidentally disturbed the shore of the birds, all wings "stand" away, is also a wonderful scene.




Geiser Sol DE Manana


I call it boiling mud. This kind of scenery is similar in Yellowstone national park, but you should know, only in Bolivia, this bird shit no man's land, you can directly stand in the rolling mud convenient, hot water vapor continuously hit you, directly feel the impact from the volcanic heat! On the way back, your feet will be this piece of black soil thick sticky layer, instantly height increased five centimeters.




It is the highest scenic spot in the nature reserve, reaching 4,885 meters above sea level. Sol DE Manana means morning sun in Spanish. But this is not the geyser of a geyser as it is commonly understood. It is a geothermal field consisting mainly of steam pools and mud pools. The landscape is much better than the El Tatio geyser that was set up in Chile, with potholes of gray-white hot mud with yellow sulfur streaks on the sides and orange-and-white mud farther away, so it looks rich and colorful.




Little hot springs with Salar DE Chalviri


Leave the lakes and speed across the Daly Desert (Desierto Dali) on the South American plateau, enjoying the vast Desert landscape. It is still alpine and desert climate, the air is very dry, at the same time unusually transparent, so the distant mountain scenery is more magnificent. The tiny four-wheel drive in the distance, like a mayfly flying on the sky and earth, carries a cloud of dust. The artistic conception is beautiful. Because the jeep travels in these places all year round, the air conditioner is dusty and dusty when opened, so it won't work. Besides, the temperature outside the window is not very high. But closed Windows can get muggy, so you have to open them, which means you have to close them right away because of the dust. Even so, all the way or inhaled a lot. It takes about 1 hour to reach Salar DE Chalviri, which is also a plateau salt lake. Lakeside is the Termas DE Polques spa pool. The tour group from uyuni will stay here for one night. Imagine, after a day's tiredness and the bright plateau, you drag your tired body into the hot spring pool under the snow mountain, and all the pores of your body will open in a moment. What a wonderful feeling! Most importantly, this fairyland is completely high-end and only costs 6 yuan!


White lake and green lake Laguna Blanca & Verde


White lake is white due to the high concentration of minerals. It is clear and milky, pure and calm, reflecting the distant mountains and blue sky, making people relaxed and happy. There are also some elf-like highland migratory birds on the lake. The last attraction in the Eduardo Abaroa nature reserve is Laguna Verde, which is a jewel-like green with minerals like magnesium, calcium carbonate, lead and arsenic. Especially when it's windy and sunny. Across the lake stands the highest peak in the area, Volcan Licancabur. Towering above the clouds, the volcano is the summit of Bolivia and Chile. Beyond this mountain lies the atacama desert in northern Chile. It is one of the driest places in the world, and the place that professor doo min joon loves the most, most like his hometown



Tips:


Bolivia transit Chile:


After crossing the green lake, the tour group from uyuni has two options: return to uyuni or cross the border to Chile. Chile is visa-free with a U.S. visa, and if a trip to Chile is required, the group rearranges the vehicle, with the rest of the group taking the original vehicle for an eight-hour or so trek back to the town of uyuni




Lake titicaca of China


Located at the border of Bolivia and Peru, lake titicaca is the highest navigable freshwater lake in South America. Surrounded by snow-capped mountains, the lake as blue as the sea, picturesque. This is the "mother lake" of South America, the cradle of many civilizations. The tiawanaco civilization, and later the Inca civilization, as we've talked about before, originated on the shores of lake titicaca. Dozens of islands in the lake are still inhabited, and traditional ways of life still exist. Visit lake titicaca from copacabana in Bolivia or puno in Peru. The scenery on both sides is similar, but the humanities are different.



This is the crossing point between Bolivia and Peru. This city in Bolivia is called copacavana. The name comes from the world-famous beach in Rio DE janeiro. At first glance, it looks like a small seaside town.




Titicaca lake of the lake water is amazing, people can not tell is the sea or the lake. The town is small, and the main street is full of inns, restaurants and travel agents, as if it were a night back in goa, India, full of hippie atmosphere. This city in Peru is called puno. (before Bolivia, many travelers from South America would choose to apply for a Bolivian visa at the consulate here. The visa man was also affable. Bolivia now has visa-on-arrival, so unless it is a land border, it is unlikely that many travellers would choose to apply for a visa here.




Hop-on Hop- off bus is used to connect the two countries. The bus company is called Bolivia Hop in Bolivia and Peru Hop in Peru. They are the same company. In addition to la paz to Cuzco, there are a number of tourist routes within Peru. Through the purchase of a certain line of tickets online, you can stop by the city online to arrange a few days, and then sit back to the same company car can be. The car is equipped with bilingual guide, detailed record management of everyone's accommodation and car date, and then arrange the hotel to the hotel shuttle, quite considerate and convenient. What's more, you can book tour groups on the routes when you book bus tickets, such as sun island half-day tour and puno floating island group. From bus tickets to small groups, the prices are affordable and the guides are clear, so it is highly recommended.




Tips:


On transit:


As soon as we left copacavana, the Bolivia Hop guide took us to the entry-exit point to process Bolivia's exit. The process involves carrying luggage through the border, then switching to a more spacious and comfortable bus from Peru Hop. It will take another two and a half hours to reach puno after crossing the border. Since the bus is larger, a minibus will take passengers to their hotel.



Sun island


I think it is relatively pit scenic spot, in vain. It takes about 70 minutes to reach sun island by boat from the dock. The sun island is the largest island on lake titicaca and the place where the ancient Inca worshiped the sun god. The boat lands at the south pier, then follows the so-called Inca trail north to the north pier, where it boards the boat and returns for about an hour on foot. Along the way, you can overlook the blue titicaca lake from the top of the island. It just happened to clear up in the afternoon, and there was a little scenery to see, but it was definitely not a pleasant surprise. It is said that there are some Inca ancient relics on the island, but we did not see them.




Uru is a floating island


It may be said of titicaca lake, not to be missed!




The floating islanders were originally indigenous to the uru people who lived around lake titicaca, and later fled to live on boats in the lake to escape the Inca empire. They found that the roots of reeds could float, so they built floating islands with reeds to weave houses and lived on the island ever since. We visited the island to see the master demonstrate the process of building a floating island, and showed the daily life of the islanders. The guide explained from the side.




玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍


Some people say that visiting the floating island is more commercial, because it is necessary to go with a group. On the island, it must also be for show and selling handicrafts, just like when we visit some minority villages, so is the development of tourism. It's hard not to be, though, as the floating island is in a nature reserve at the northwest corner of lake titicaca.




About 90 of the islands are believed to be nearby but not completely connected. These islands are basically family units, the large islands are only four or five or six hundred square meters, it is impossible to have a fixed line of docks for tourists to go to, and the carrying capacity of each island is also limited. So we can only arrange with the group.




Different travel agencies are estimated to cooperate with different islands, a ship of 20 or 30 people to one of the islands to visit, not crowded. Of course, you can't go to any island you like, and it doesn't take long. Nevertheless have English to explain, also calculate on the whole the effect that raises knowledge, have good have bad


玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍





It takes almost a year to build a floating island. At the end of the summer, the roots of the reeds are dug up, and usually at this time the reeds are the highest growing and the roots are the thickest, with some mud mixed together. The roots are light enough to float. It takes four to five months for the roots to be excavated in blocks and then tied together with ropes to form a "foundation" for the floating island.




Layers of reeds were then laid on the foundation to raise the surface of the island above the water. Because living in such a place is very humid, the grass house usually has to be raised by two steps. A new layer of reeds is laid on the island every two weeks, or it will gradually become soaked. The owner of the island showed us how to gently open a small hole. The reeds in the lower layer were all wet. Such floating islands usually last 30 to 35 years, because the roots will naturally decompose, and over time the island will become less solid and people will have to build a new one. As a result, the craft has been passed down from generation to generation.



玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍

What's interesting is that when you land on the island, the women in local clothes will sing and dance to you, while the men on the island do almost nothing. After visiting life on the island, enthusiastic uru people will invite you to ride on their water Benz, a boat made of reeds. According to local customs, if a boy wants to pursue a girl, he needs to make one of these Mercedes by himself, and then he can pick up the girl, and then he can paddle into the woods and do something shy.




This simple boat has always carried a large part of the life of the uru people, including transportation, fishing, and even getting married and having children. The project is self-funded (though very small) and is suggested as a way to support local residents. At the end of the trip, local dama will also bring their children to sing farewell songs for you. The songs floating on the vast titicaca lake are very beautiful.



玻利维亚/天空之境怎么样好不好介绍

In fact, I think later, the life of the uru people is very similar to that of the bayao ethnic group in Malaysia. They are both primitive tribes on the water. The two days when I lived with the bayao ethnic group a few years ago had a profound influence on me. We hope that the uru people can keep their simplicity and simplicity, and we don't bother them too much.


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